Cell Structure BBC Bitesize
All animals and plants are made of cells. Animal cells and plant cells have features in common, such as a nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria and ribosomes. Plant cells also have a cell wall, and often have chloroplasts and a permanent vacuole. Note that cells may be specialised to carry out a particular function.
Dissolved substances pass into and out of cells by diffusion. Water passes into and out of cells by osmosis.
Function of cells which animal and plant cells have in common
|nucleus||contains genetic material, which controls the activities of the cell|
|cytoplasm||most chemical processes take place here, controlled by enzymes|
|cell membrane||controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell|
|mitochondria||most energy is released by respiration here|
|ribosomes||protein synthesis happens here|
Plant cells also have extra parts:
Extra parts of plant cells
|cell wall||strengthens the cell|
|chloroplasts||contain chlorophyll, which absorbs light energy for photosynthesis|
|permanent vacuole||filled with cell sap to help keep the cell [turgid: Having turgor; enlarged and swollen with water ]|