Morphological Characteristics of Bacteria and fungi
Mastitis is recognized world wide as the most important and costly disease of dairy animals. Field surveys of major livestock diseases in Pakistan have indicated that mastitis is one of the most important health hazards in the country (Ajmal, 1990). Mastitis is caused by interaction of various factors associated with host, pathogens and the environment. Infectious agents like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and algae are mostly the primary causes of disease. The etiology of mastitis is very complex because a large number of microorganisms are known to cause inflammation of the udder. Generally, well-recognized organisms responsible for mastitis are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysagalatiae, Streptococcus hovis, Corynaebacterium pyogenes, Pseudomonas auroginosa and Escherichia coli etc. (Radostits et al., 2000).
Bio-morphological variation in the characteristics of bacterial species that cause mastitis is described by Dewani (2000). In addition, several workers have observed the bio-morphological characteristics of bacterial species through-out the world (Gabbar, 1992; Bergey’s 1992; and Khan & Rind, 2001). So in the following investigation, bio-morphological characteristics from isolation and identification of species, independent of their bio-morphological and antigenic characteristics, were studied and described.
Material and Methods
Seventy eight clinical mastitic milk samples from different herds of camels were collected in sterilized bijoux bottles (completely wrapped/ covered with aluminum foil) and brought to Central Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (CVDL), Tando Jam, Sindh, Pakistan for isolation and identification of bacterial species. Before collection of samples, the tips of mastitic teats were cleaned with cotton wool moistened with 70% alcohol and few strips of milk were discarded to avoid contamination as much as possible.
Before processing the samples, all preparations were made as described by Gabbar (1992). The media to be needed for proper cultivation and inoculation of bacterial organisms were prepared, inoculation and identification characteristics whether of physical, cultural, biochemical and morphological were recorded as adopted by Khan and Rind (2001).
The biochemical tests were conducted to confirm the identification of bacterial organisms. For this purpose, oxidase, catalase, coagulase, indole, Voges Proskauer, Urease, methyl red, gelatin liquefaction, Simmon’s Citrate, H2S production, asculin hydrolysis and TSI teats were carried-out (Difco, 1960) while for sugar fermentation properties, nine different sugars of 1% were prepared and used for each bacterium as described by Cruickshank (1970). The sugars were: Mannose, Xylose, Inositol, Galactose, Mannitol, Glucose, Maltose, Creatinin and Dulcitol.
Results and Discussion
During present investigation, morphological, cultural, staining and chemical characteristics of various bacterial species of camel mastitis were recorded and presented in different tables.