Bacterial cell and Animal cell
Classification of Bacterial Cell
Bacteria can be categorized depending on their morphology:
- Cocci are the spherical-shaped bacteria.
- Bacillus are the rod-shaped bacteria.
- Vibrio are the comma-shaped bacteria
- Spirilla are the spiral-shaped bacteria
- Spirochaetes are tightly coiled bacteria
Some bacteria live as single cells. But, some of them live in pairs called . Streptococcus are the bacterial chains. Staphylococcus form ‘bunch of grapes’ like clusters. Filaments are the elongated bacteria like Actinobacteria. Some are branched filaments such as Nocardia.
Depending on the carbon source, bacteria can be divided into two groups: heterotrophs and autotrophs. The carbon source is organic compounds in heterotrophps whereas the carbon source is carbon dioxide in autotrophs. Depending on the energy source, bacteria can be divided into three groups: phototrophs, lithotrophs or organotrophs. In the phototrophs, the energy source is sunlight. Organic compounds are used as the energy source in organotrophs. In lithotrophs, the energy source is inorganic compounds.
What is an Animal Cell
Animal cell can form either unicellular or multicellular eukaryotic organisms, containing membrane-enclosed organelles such as nucleus, mitochondria and Golgi apparatus. Multicellular eukaryotes contain specialized tissues made by different types of cells. Approximately 210 distinct animal cell types can be found in the adult human body. They have various functions like the production of enzymes, hormones and energy. Animal cells are heterotrophs.
Cellular Structure of Animal Cell
Animal cells are larger in size compared to bacterial cells and are about 10 to 100 µm in size. They are irregular in shape due to the lack of a cell wall. The outer boundary of an animal cell is the plasma membrane, which is considered as semi-permeable. Semi-permeable membranes only allow selected molecules to move across it. Plasma membrane is composed of phospholipids containing polor heads and non-polor tails. It is described by the lipid bi-layer model.
Cytoskeleton of the animal cell is composed of microfilaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments. Cytoskeleton plays a vital role in cellular organization and its shape. Animmal cells are composed of a variety of membrane-bound organelles. The nucleus is enclosed by two membranes called nuclear membrane or nuclear envelop. Nuclear membrane forms the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) which is involved in protein maturation and transportation. Ribosomes are large, 80S in size and are bound to the ER. Ribosome-bound ER is referred to as rough ER. Vesicles are present for the transformation of various molecules within the cell such as golgi bodies, lysosomes and peroxizomes. Lysosomes store digestive enzymes. Mitochondria is also surrounded by two phospholipid bilayers. They covert sugar into ATPs in order to use it as energy. Animal cells contain structures like cilia, centrioles, flagella and lysosomes. A generalized animal cell is shown in figure 2.
Usually, animal cells are composed of more than one chromosomes in the nucleus. These chromosomes are linear and often exist in multiple copies called homologous. Animal cells reproduce asexually by mitosis and sexually by meiosis, followed by the fusion of gametes.
Bacterial Cell: Bacterial cell is a prokaryotic cell.
Animal Cell: Animal cell is a eukaryotic cell.
Bacterial Cell: Bacterial cells are 0.2 to 2 µm in size.
Animal Cell: Animal cells are larger in size compared to bacterial cells and 10 to 100 µm in size.
Bacterial Cell: The bacterial cell wall is made up of murein.
Animal Cell: Animal cells do not have a cell wall. The plasma membrane is the outer boundary.
Bacterial Cell: Bacterial cells consist of several shapes like coccui, bacillus, vibrio, spirilla.
Animal Cell: Animal cells are irregular in shape due to the lack of a cell wall.
Bacterial Cell: Bacterial cells do not possess a nucleus.
Animal Cell: Animal cells are composed of a membrane-bound nucleus.
Bacterial Cell: Bacterial cytoplasm has plasmids.
Animal Cell: Animal cells do not have plasmids.
Bacterial Cell: Bacterial cells do not contain mitochondria.
Animal Cell: Animal cells contain mitochondria in the cytoplasm.
Bacterial Cell: Bacterial cells contain 70S, small ribosomes.
Animal Cell: Animal cells contains 80S, larger ribosomes.
Bacterial Cell: Bacterial cells do not contain centrioles.
Animal Cell: Animal cells contain centrioles.
Bacterial Cell: Bacterial cells do not contain lysosomes.
Animal Cell: Animal cells contain lysosomes.
Bacterial Cell: Bacterial cells can be either heterotrophs or autotrophs.
Animal Cell: Animal cells are heterotrophs.
Bacterial Cell: Bacterial cells reproduce asexually by binary fission and sexually by conjugation.
Animal Cell: Animal cells reproduce asexually by mitosis and sexually by meiosis, followed by the fusion of gametes.