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Kinds of living organisms

Types / March 23, 2018

Kinds of living organisms

1. The living space

From 6, 000 meters above the sea level to 200 meters below sea level,

2. Classifications of Biota

Let's introduce some terms:

Procaryote: A type of cell in which the nuclear substance is not enclosed within a membrane; e.g., a bacterium or cyanobacterium.

Eucaryote: A cell that possesses a definitive or true nucleus.

Aerobe: An organism that require oxygen (O2) as the terminal electron acceptor, or can grow in an environment with the present of oxygen.

Anaerobe: An organism that can live without oxygen (O2).

Nutrients: chemical elements or compounds that are necessary for both the synthesis and the normal functions of living organisms.

Autotroph: Organisms that use inorganic materials as nutrients; and CO2 or carbonate is the sole source of carbon; such as photoautotroph using light as energy, chemolithoautotroph obtaining energy through oxidation of inorganic material.

Heterotroph: organisms that utilize organic materials as their food substrates.

Nutritional classification of organisms

Chemotrophs: Organisms use chemical compounds (both organic and inorganic) for energy, e.g., fungi, some sulfur bacteria.

Phototrophs: Organisms use radiant energy (light) for energy, e.g, algae, cyanobacteria.

Chemoautotrophs: Organisms use chemical compounds (inorganic) for energy and carbon dioxide as the main source of carbon, e.g., nitrifying bacteria, sulfur bacteria, and iron bacteria.

Chemoheterotrophs: Organisms use chemical compounds (organic) for energy and organic compounds as main source of carbon, e.g., most bacteria, fungi, protozoa and animals.

Photoautotrophs: Organisms use light for energy and carbon dioxide as the main source of carbon, e.g., algae, plants, cyanobacteria.

Photoheterotrophs: Organisms use light for energy and organic compounds as main source of carbon, e.g., purple and green nonsulfur bacteria.

Functional Classifications:

Producers: all autotrophic organisms.
Consumers: all heterotrophic organisms including (1) herbivores or grazers that feed on plants, (2) carnivores or predators that feed on other animals, (3) omnivores that feed on both plants and animals, and (4) saprovores or decomposers (primarily microorganisms) that feed on decaying organic materials.

Source: people.ucsc.edu
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