Oldest Life on Earth Mr. Kempfer 7th Grade Science - ppt download

Does Bacteria have Cytoplasm

Bacteria / December 10, 2017

The structures of two prokaryotic cells. The bacterium (shown at the top) is a heterotroph, an organism that eats other organisms. Cyanophytes are autotrophs, organisms that make their food without eating other organisms.

Most of these prokaryotic cells are small, ranging from 1 to 10 microns with a diameter no greater than 1 micron. The major differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells are that prokaryotes do not have a nucleus as a distinct organelle and rarely have any membrane bound organelles [mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, a cytoskeleton of microtubules and microfilaments] (the only exception may be a bacterium discovered to have vacuoles). Both types contain DNA as genetic material, have a surrounding cell membrane, have ribosomes[70 s], accomplish similar functions, and are very diverse. For instance, there are over 200 types of cells in the human body, that vary greatly in size, shape, and function.

Prokaryotes are cells without a distinct nucleus.They have genetic material but that material is not enclosed within a membrane. Prokaryotes include bacteria and cyanophytes. The genetic material is a single circular DNA strand and is located within the cytoplasm. Recombination happens through transfers of plasmids (short circles of DNA that pass from one bacterium to another). Prokaryoytes do not engulf solids, nor do they have centrioles or asters. Prokaryotes have a cell wall made up of peptidoglycin.

In majority of prokaryotes, the genome consists of a circular chromosome whose structure includes fewer proteins that found in the linear chromosomes of eukaryotes. Their chromosome is located in the nucleoid, a region of cytoplasm that appears lighter than surrounding cytoplasm in electron micrographs. Also, a single chromosome have much smaller rings of separately replication DNA called plasmids.

Cell Surface[edit]

Prokaryotic cell walls maintain cell shape, provide physical protection, and prevents the cell from bursting in a hypotonic environment. In hypertonic environment, most prokaryotes lose water and shrink away from their wall (plasmolyze). The cell walls of prokaryotes differ in molecular composition and construction from those of eukaryotes. The bacterial cell walls contain peptidoglycan, a network of modified-sugar polymers cross linked by short polypeptides. This molecular fabric encloses the entire bacterium and anchors other molecules that extend from its surface. Archaeal cell walls contain a variety of polysaccharides and proteins but lack peptidoglycan.

Gram-positive bacteria have simpler walls with a relatively large amount of peptidoglycan. It has a thick cell wall that traps the crystal violet in the cytoplasm. The alcohol rinse does not remove the crystal violet which masks the added red safanin dye.

Gram-negative bacteria have less peptidoglycan and are structurally more complex, with an outer membrane that contains lipopolysaccharides. It has a thinner layer of peptidoglycan, and it is located in a layer between the plasma membrane and an outer membrane. The crystal violet is easily rinsed from the cytoplasm, and the cell appears pink or red.

Source: en.wikibooks.org